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1 XWiki supports several different authentication mechanisms for authenticating users:
2
3 {{toc/}}
4
5 {{info}}
6 XWiki currently allows only one method of authentication to be enabled at a time. This will probably be improved in the future.
7 {{/info}}
8
9 Also note that XWiki requires cookies to be enable in order to track your session and to keep you logged in between pages.
10
11 = Form Authentication =
12
13 Form authentication is the default way to get authenticated within a Wiki. It requires a user and a password.
14
15 = Basic Authentication =
16
17 XWiki supports [[basic access authentication>>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basic_access_authentication]], a method designed to allow a web browser or other client programs to provide credentials - in the form of a user name and password - when making a request. You can get authenticated against an XWiki server with the basic authentication protocol using the following URL scheme:
18
19 {{code}}
20 http://username:password@mywiki.xwiki.com/xwiki/bin/view/Main/WebHome?basicauth=1
21 {{/code}}
22
23 {{warning}}
24 Be careful that if you use the ##HTTP## protocol your password will be sent in clear over the network and is thus very unsafe. When using basic authentication you should make sure your wiki is configured to use ##HTTPS##.
25 {{/warning}}
26
27 = Container Authentication =
28
29 Delegates authentication to the Servlet Container. If it fails it falls back to the standard XWiki authentication.
30
31 To configure XWiki to use it, specify:
32
33 {{code}}
34 xwiki.authentication.authclass=com.xpn.xwiki.user.impl.xwiki.AppServerTrustedAuthServiceImpl
35 {{/code}}
36
37 = Social Login =
38
39 See the [[Social Login Application>>extensions:Extension.Social Login Application]].
40
41 = LDAP Authentication =
42
43 If you are going to use the [[LDAP Admin Extension>>http://extensions.xwiki.org/xwiki/bin/view/Extension/LDAP+Application#HPrerequisites26InstallationInstructions]], which makes it easier to configure LDAP, then you only need to uncomment xwiki.authentication.authclass property and //nothing// else. Unlike editing xwiki.cfg, which requires you to redeploy xWiki app, LDAP Extension allows you to make changes without restarting.
44
45 == Generic LDAP configuration ==
46
47 In order to enable the LDAP support you have to change the authentication method in //WEB-INF/xwiki.cfg// as follows:
48
49 {{code language="properties"}}
50 #-# LDAP authentication service
51 # xwiki.authentication.authclass=com.xpn.xwiki.user.impl.LDAP.XWikiLDAPAuthServiceImpl
52
53 #-# Turn LDAP authentication on - otherwise only XWiki authentication
54 #-# - 0: disable
55 #-# - 1: enable
56 #-# The default is 1
57 # xwiki.authentication.ldap=1
58 {{/code}}
59
60 You can setup the LDAP configuration in the **xwiki.cfg** file by filling the following properties:
61
62 {{code language="properties"}}
63 #-# LDAP Server (Active Directory, eDirectory, OpenLDAP, etc.)
64 xwiki.authentication.ldap.server=127.0.0.1
65 xwiki.authentication.ldap.port=389
66
67 #-# LDAP login, empty = anonymous access, otherwise specify full dn
68 #-# {0} is replaced with the user name, {1} with the password
69 xwiki.authentication.ldap.bind_DN=cn={0},department=USER,department=INFORMATIK,department=1230,o=MP
70 xwiki.authentication.ldap.bind_pass={1}
71
72 #-# The Base DN used in LDAP searches
73 xwiki.authentication.ldap.base_DN=
74
75 #-# LDAP query to search the user in the LDAP database (in case a static admin user is provided in
76 #-# xwiki.authentication.ldap.bind_DN)
77 #-# {0} is replaced with the user uid field name and {1} with the user name
78 #-# The default is ({0}={1})
79 # xwiki.authentication.ldap.user_search_fmt=({0}={1})
80
81 #-# Only members of the following group can authenticate.
82 #-# The following kind of groups are supported:
83 #-# * LDAP static groups (users/subgroups are listed statically in the group object)
84 #-# * [Since 3.3M1] LDAP organization units (users/subgroups are sub object of the provided organization unit)
85 #-# * [Since 3.3M1] LDAP filter (users/groups are object found in a search with the provided filter)
86 # xwiki.authentication.ldap.user_group=cn=developers,ou=groups,o=MegaNova,c=US
87
88 #-# [Since 1.5RC1, XWikiLDAPAuthServiceImpl]
89 #-# Only users not member of the following group can authenticate.
90 #-# The following kind of groups are supported:
91 #-# * LDAP static groups (users/subgroups are listed statically in the group object)
92 #-# * [Since 3.3M1] LDAP organization units (users/subgroups are sub object of the provided organization unit)
93 #-# * [Since 3.3M1] LDAP filter (users/groups are object found in a search with the provided filter)
94 # xwiki.authentication.ldap.exclude_group=cn=admin,ou=groups,o=MegaNova,c=US
95
96 #-# Specifies the LDAP attribute containing the identifier to be used as the XWiki name
97 #-# The default is cn
98 # xwiki.authentication.ldap.UID_attr=cn
99
100 #-# [Since 1.5M1, XWikiLDAPAuthServiceImpl]
101 #-# The potential LDAP groups classes. Separated by commas.
102 # xwiki.authentication.ldap.group_classes=group,groupOfNames,groupOfUniqueNames,dynamicGroup,dynamicGroupAux,groupWiseDistributionList
103
104 #-# [Since 1.5M1, XWikiLDAPAuthServiceImpl]
105 #-# The potential names of the LDAP groups fields containings the members. Separated by commas.
106 # xwiki.authentication.ldap.group_memberfields=member,uniqueMember
107
108 #-# retrieve the following fields from LDAP and store them in the XWiki user object (xwiki-attribute=ldap-attribute)
109 xwiki.authentication.ldap.fields_mapping=last_name=sn,first_name=givenName,email=mail
110
111 #-# [Since 1.3M2, XWikiLDAPAuthServiceImpl]
112 #-# On every login update the mapped attributes from LDAP to XWiki otherwise this happens only once when the XWiki
113 #-# account is created.
114 #-# - 0: only when creating user
115 #-# - 1: at each authentication
116 #-# The default is 0
117 xwiki.authentication.ldap.update_user=1
118
119 #-# [Since 1.3M2, XWikiLDAPAuthServiceImpl]
120 #-# Maps XWiki groups to LDAP groups, separator is "|".
121 #-# The following kind of groups are supported:
122 #-# * LDAP static groups (users/subgroups are listed statically in the group object)
123 #-# * [Since 3.3M1] LDAP organization units (users/subgroups are sub object of the provided organization unit)
124 #-# * [Since 3.3M1] LDAP filter (users/groups are object found in a search with the provided filter),
125 #-# | character in the filter need to be escaped with backslash (\).
126 #-#
127 #-# Here is an example:
128 # xwiki.authentication.ldap.group_mapping=XWiki.XWikiAdminGroup=cn=AdminRole,ou=groups,o=domain,c=com|\
129 # XWiki.LDAPUsers=ou=groups,o=domain,c=com|\
130 # XWiki.Organisation=(cn=testers)
131
132 #-# [Since 1.3M2, XWikiLDAPAuthServiceImpl]
133 #-# Time in s after which the list of members in a group is refreshed from LDAP
134 #-# The default is 21600 (6 hours)
135 # xwiki.authentication.ldap.groupcache_expiration=21600
136
137 #-# [Since 1.3M2, XWikiLDAPAuthServiceImpl]
138 #-# - create : synchronize group membership only when the user is first created
139 #-# - always: synchronize on every login
140 #-# The default is always
141 # xwiki.authentication.ldap.mode_group_sync=always
142
143 #-# [Since 1.3M2, XWikiLDAPAuthServiceImpl]
144 #-# If ldap authentication fails for any reason, try XWiki DB authentication with the same credentials
145 #-# - 0: disable
146 #-# - 1: enable
147 #-# The default is 0
148 xwiki.authentication.ldap.trylocal=1
149
150 #-# [Since 1.3M2, XWikiLDAPAuthServiceImpl]
151 #-# SSL connection to LDAP server
152 #-# - 0: normal
153 #-# - 1: SSL
154 #-# The default is 0
155 # xwiki.authentication.ldap.ssl=0
156
157 #-# [Since 1.3M2, XWikiLDAPAuthServiceImpl]
158 #-# The keystore file to use in SSL connection
159 # xwiki.authentication.ldap.ssl.keystore=
160
161 #-# [Since 1.5M1, XWikiLDAPAuthServiceImpl]
162 #-# The java secure provider used in SSL connection
163 #-# The default is com.sun.net.ssl.internal.ssl.Provider
164 # xwiki.authentication.ldap.ssl.secure_provider=com.sun.net.ssl.internal.ssl.Provider
165
166 #-# Bypass standard LDAP bind validation by doing a direct password comparison.
167 #-# If you don't know what you do, don't use that. It's covering very rare and bad use cases.
168 #-# - 0: disable
169 #-# - 1: enable
170 #-# The default is 0
171 # xwiki.authentication.ldap.validate_password=0
172
173 #-# [Since 1.5M1, XWikiLDAPAuthServiceImpl]
174 #-# Specifies the LDAP attribute containing the password to be used "when xwiki.authentication.ldap.validate_password"
175 #-# is set to 1
176 # xwiki.authentication.ldap.password_field=userPassword
177
178 #-# [Since 4.3M1, XWikiLDAPAuthServiceImpl]
179 #-# The maximum number of milliseconds the client waits for any operation under these constraints to complete.
180 #-# The default is 1000
181 # xwiki.authentication.ldap.timeout=1000
182 {{/code}}
183
184 {{info}}
185 You can also setup the LDAP configuration in the XWiki.XWikiPreferences page by going to the object editor. Simply replace **xwiki.authentication.ldap.** with **ldap_**. For example ##xwiki.authentication.ldap.base_DN## becomes ##ldap_base_DN##.
186 {{/info}}
187
188 For testing purposes, you may wish to omit the "ldap.fields_mapping" field, to test the authentication first, and then add it later to get the mappings right.
189
190 Here are some LDAP clients for checking your configuration:
191
192 Java based and Open Source:
193
194 * [[Apache Directory Studio>>http://directory.apache.org/studio/]]
195 * [[JXplorer>>http://jxplorer.org/]]
196
197 Windows only:
198
199 * [[Softerra LDAP Browser>>http://www.ldapbrowser.com/info_softerra-ldap-browser.htm]]
200
201 == Detailed use cases ==
202
203 See the [[LDAP configuration uses cases>>LDAPAuthenticationUseCases]] for some detailed use cases.
204
205 == Enable LDAP debug log ==
206
207 See [[AdminGuide.Logging]].
208
209 The specific packages to track for LDAP are ##com.xpn.xwiki.plugin.ldap## and ##com.xpn.xwiki.user.impl.LDAP##.
210
211 Starting with XWiki 4.2 we added a new [[Logging UI>>extensions:Extension.Logging Application]] from the Administration section, which allows logging to be enabled at runtime, directly from the UI, without the need to restart the wiki.
212
213 In XWiki 3.4 you need to add the following in ##WEB-INF/classes/logback.xml##:
214
215 {{code}}
216 <!-- LDAP debugging -->
217 <logger name="com.xpn.xwiki.plugin.ldap" level="trace"/>
218 <logger name="com.xpn.xwiki.user.impl.LDAP" level="trace"/>
219 {{/code}}
220
221 Before 3.1, add the following to the log4j configuration file:
222
223 {{code}}
224 log4j.logger.com.xpn.xwiki.plugin.ldap=trace
225 log4j.logger.com.xpn.xwiki.user.impl.LDAP=trace
226 {{/code}}
227
228 = Custom Authentication =
229
230 This allows plugging to any existing authentication mechanism such as SiteMinder, etc. To configure a custom authentication do the following:
231
232 1. Implement the {{scm path="xwiki-platform-core/xwiki-platform-oldcore/src/main/java/com/xpn/xwiki/user/api/XWikiAuthService.java"}}XWikiAuthService{{/scm}} interface.
233 1. Edit the //WEB-INF/xwiki.cfg// file and add a //xwiki.authentication.authclass// property pointing to your class. For example:
234
235 {{code language="properties"}}
236 xwiki.authentication.authclass = com.acme.MyCustomAuthenticationService
237 {{/code}}
238
239 You can find various [[authenticators examples>>https://github.com/xwiki-contrib/sandbox/tree/master/authenticators]].
240
241 Here's a [[tutorial on implementing a custom authentication class for authenticating against Oracle's SSO>>http://bodez.wordpress.com/2008/10/15/xwiki-user-authentication-with-oracle-sso/]].
242
243 Note, that you can also implement own right management service by implementing the {{scm path="xwiki-platform-core/xwiki-platform-oldcore/src/main/java/com/xpn/xwiki/user/api/XWikiRightService.java"}}XWikiRightService{{/scm}} interface:
244
245 {{code language="properties"}}
246 xwiki.authentication.rightsclass = com.acme.MyCustomRightsService
247 {{/code}}
248
249 and Group Service by implementing {{scm path="xwiki-platform-core/xwiki-platform-oldcore/src/main/java/com/xpn/xwiki/user/api/XWikiGroupService.java"}}XWikiGroupService{{/scm}}:
250
251 {{code language="properties"}}
252 xwiki.authentication.groupclass = com.acme.MyCustomGroupService
253 {{/code}}
254
255 == Custom Authentication using a Groovy script in a wiki page ==
256
257 Start by specifying you want to use the Groovy Authenticator:
258
259 {{code language="properties"}}
260 xwiki.authentication.authclass = com.xpn.xwiki.user.impl.xwiki.GroovyAuthServiceImpl
261 {{/code}}
262
263 Then add another configuration parameter to specify in which wiki page the authenticator is:
264
265 {{code language="properties"}}
266 xwiki.authentication.groovy.pagename = MySpace.MyPage
267 {{/code}}
268
269 Then put some Groovy code in a wiki page that returns a XWikiAuthService object.
270
271 = Authentication parameters =
272
273 You can set each of these parameters by setting:
274
275 {{code}}
276 xwiki.authentication.~~param_name~~=~~param_value~~
277 {{/code}}
278
279 |=Name|=Optional|=Allowed values|=Default value|=Description
280 |encryptionKey|No(1)|?|n/a|Set the Encryption Key used to create a secret key, the secret key is passed to the Cipher object to be used during encryption and decryption of cookie values.
281 |validationKey|No(2)|?|n/a|Set the Validation Key used to generate hash value; the hash value is stored with the cookie and used to verify that the cookie has not been tampered with.
282 |cookiedomains|Yes|String|Server host name|Which host(s) should your cookies be sent to; use only if you want to share cookies across domains, otherwise should be commented out
283 |cookielife|Yes|Number|14|Number of days cookies take to expire
284 |cookiepath|Yes|String|/|The webapp path that XWiki cookies should be sent to; if you have anything else running on your web server, this should be set to ///xwiki//
285 |default_page|Yes|String|/bin/view/ Main/WebHome|Page to redirect to if xredirect parameter is not set
286 |encryptionalgorithm|Yes|?|?|Set the Encryption Algorithm used to encrypt and decrypt cookies
287 |encryptionmode|Yes|?|?|Set the Encryption Mode used to encrypt and decrypt cookies
288 |encryptionpadding|Yes|?|?|Set the Encryption Padding used to encrypt and decrypt cookies
289 |errorpage|Yes|String|/bin/loginerror/ XWiki/XWikiLogin|Page to redirect to if there is an error logging in
290 |loginpage|Yes|String|/bin/login/ XWiki/XWikiLogin|Page to redirect to when not logged in
291 |loginsubmitpage|Yes|String|/loginsubmit/ XWiki/XWikiLogin|The URL where the username and password are posted to when logging in.
292 |logoutpage|Yes|String|/bin/logout/ XWiki/XWikiLogout|Page to redirect to after logged out
293 |realmname|Yes|String|XWiki|Sets the realm name
294 |protection|Yes|all, validation, encryption, none|all|Protection level for the "remember me" cookie functionality
295 |unauthorized_code|Yes|Number|401|The HTTP status code to return when the login has failed.
296 |useip|Yes|true / false|true|Specify to use the IP address when encrypting the cookie data; if IP address changes will need to re-login.
297
298 1. Only required if protection = encryption or all (default)
299 1. Only required if protection = validation or all (default)
300
301 = Kerberos SSO Authentication =
302
303 {{warning}}
304 This implementation of SSO is currently under review see: http://jira.xwiki.org/jira/browse/XWIKI-2496 . The class which is described in this segment of documentation, AppServerTrustedKerberosAuthServiceImpl, is not part of the default XWiki distribution!
305 {{/warning}}
306
307 The following is an example of **mod_auth_kerb** for Apache being used to easily implement XWiki authentication of users via HTTP Negotiate on a linux server. This example assumes you already have a working Apache2 HTTPD and Apache Tomcat setup with mod_jk.
308
309 First of all you need to create a principal and keytab for the webserver:
310
311 {{code}}
312 # kadmin
313 kadmin> addprinc -randkey HTTP/wiki.example.com
314 kadmin> ktadd -k /etc/apache2/ssl/wiki.keytab HTTP/wiki.example.com
315 kadmin> quit
316 {{/code}}
317
318 Make sure the keytab has the right permissions and ownership:
319
320 {{code}}
321 chown www-data:www-data /etc/apache2/ssl/wiki.keytab
322 chmod 400 /etc/apache2/ssl/wiki.keytab
323 {{/code}}
324
325 Install **mod_auth_kerb** in your linux installation. On Debian or Ubuntu this would be achieved by running:
326
327 {{code}}
328 aptitude install libapache2-mod-auth-kerb
329 {{/code}}
330
331 Of course the installation procedure varies per Linux distribution.
332
333 If your xwiki installation is mounted in Apache HTTPD under /xwiki, add the following to the virtual host configuration:
334
335 {{code}}
336 <Location /xwiki/>
337 AuthType Kerberos
338 AuthName "Kerberos Login"
339 KrbAuthRealms EXAMPLE.COM
340 Krb5Keytab "/etc/apache2/ssl/wiki.keytab"
341 KrbMethodK5Passwd off
342 KrbMethodNegotiate on
343 KrbSaveCredentials on
344 require valid-user
345 </Location>
346 {{/code}}
347
348 Make sure Apache Tomcat uses the authentication performed by Apache HTTPD with the "tomcatAuthentication" property in the connector description (which is in the **server.xml** file of Apache Tomcat):
349
350 {{code}}
351 <Connector port="8009" address="127.0.0.1" enableLookups="false" tomcatAuthentication="false" redirectPort="8443" protocol="AJP/1.3" />
352 {{/code}}
353
354 Place the **authkerb.jar** jar in the ##WEB-INF/lib## directory of XWiki in Apache Tomcat.
355
356 Have Xwiki use the authentication module by changing the "xwiki.authentication.authclass" property in the ##WEB-INF/lib/xwiki.cfg## file.
357
358 {{code}}
359 xwiki.authentication.authclass=com.xpn.xwiki.user.impl.xwiki.AppServerTrustedKerberosAuthServiceImpl
360 {{/code}}
361
362 If you use Firefox, do not forget to whitelist the xwiki URL for HTTP Negotiate in about:config with the "network.negotiate-auth.trusted-uris" property. Possible values for this property include: //https:~/~/// for all secured connections or **example.com** for all example.com subdomains.
363
364 When I used JBoss SPNEGO (Kerberos in combination with LDAP) I changed the code of the **XWikiLDAPAuthServiceImpl** to be able to detect the sso user. The authenication already happend by using the SPNEGO module (JAAS). After that I'm using the ldap synchronisation feature to make sure that the user is up to date. The combination leads to an automatic login in XWiki and the user rights are controlled in the Active Directory server. I hope you can adopt this code or that you can use it for your own projects.
365
366 The configuration of ldap:
367
368 {{code}}
369 xwiki.authentication.authclass=com.wiki.sso.SSOLdapAuthenicationImpl
370 xwiki.authentication.ldap=1
371 xwiki.authentication.ldap.server=<ad-server>
372 xwiki.authentication.ldap.port=389
373 xwiki.authentication.ldap.base_DN=<OU=Users,...............>
374 #use a fixed user to attach to the ldap database,
375 #the password is not provided with the SSOLdapAuthenicationImpl
376 xwiki.authentication.ldap.bind_DN=<domain>\\<user>
377 xwiki.authentication.ldap.bind_pass=<password>
378 #Microsoft AD configuration
379 xwiki.authentication.ldap.UID_attr=sAMAccountName
380 xwiki.authentication.ldap.fields_mapping=name=sAMAccountName,last_name=sn,first_name=givenName,fullname=displayName,mail=mail,ldap_dn=dn
381 xwiki.authentication.ldap.group_memberfields=member,uniqueMember
382 #LDAP group mapping
383 xwiki.authentication.ldap.group_mapping=XWiki.XWikiAdminGroup=CN=WIKI_Admin,............|\
384 XWiki.XWikiAllGroup=CN=WIKI_User,...........
385 {{/code}}
386
387 The java code:
388
389 {{code}}
390 package com.wiki.sso;
391
392
393 import org.apache.commons.logging.Log;
394 import org.apache.commons.logging.LogFactory;
395
396 import com.xpn.xwiki.XWikiContext;
397 import com.xpn.xwiki.XWikiException;
398 import com.xpn.xwiki.user.api.XWikiUser;
399 import com.xpn.xwiki.user.impl.LDAP.XWikiLDAPAuthServiceImpl;
400
401 import java.security.Principal;
402
403 public class SSOLdapAuthenicationImpl extends XWikiLDAPAuthServiceImpl {
404 /**
405 * Logging tool.
406 */
407 private static final Log LOG = LogFactory.getLog(SSOLdapAuthenicationImpl.class);
408
409
410 public XWikiUser checkAuth(XWikiContext context) throws XWikiException {
411 String user = getRemoteUser(context);
412 if ((user != null) || !user.equals("")) {
413 if (LOG.isInfoEnabled())
414 LOG.info("Launching create user for " + user);
415 if ( authenticate(user, context) != null ) {
416 if (LOG.isInfoEnabled())
417 LOG.info("Create user done for " + user);
418 user = "XWiki." + user;
419 context.setUser(user);
420 System.out.println("User is set to:" + user);
421 return new XWikiUser(user);
422 } else {
423 LOG.error( "User " + user + " can't be authenticated against ldap" );
424 }
425 }
426 return super.checkAuth(context);
427 }
428
429 /**
430 * We cannot authenticate locally since we need to trust the app server for
431 * authentication
432 *
433 * @param username
434 * @param password
435 * @param context
436 * @return
437 * @throws XWikiException
438 */
439 public XWikiUser checkAuth(String username, String password,
440 String rememberme, XWikiContext context) throws XWikiException {
441 String user = getRemoteUser(context);
442 if ((user == null) || user.equals("")) {
443 return super.checkAuth(username, password, rememberme, context);
444 }
445 return checkAuth(context);
446 }
447
448 private String getRemoteUser(XWikiContext context) {
449 String userName = context.getRequest().getHttpServletRequest()
450 .getRemoteUser();
451 if (userName != null) {
452 // only take the front of the username@domain
453 String[] elements = userName.split("@", 2);
454 userName = elements[0];
455 }
456 return userName;
457 }
458
459 public Principal authenticate(String login, XWikiContext context) throws XWikiException
460 {
461 if (LOG.isTraceEnabled()) {
462 LOG.trace("Starting LDAP authentication");
463 }
464
465 /*
466 * TODO: Put the next 4 following "if" in common with XWikiAuthService to ensure coherence This method was
467 * returning null on failure so I preserved that behaviour, while adding the exact error messages to the context
468 * given as argument. However, the right way to do this would probably be to throw XWikiException-s.
469 */
470
471 if (login == null) {
472 // If we can't find the username field then we are probably on the login screen
473
474 if (LOG.isDebugEnabled()) {
475 LOG.debug("The provided user is null."
476 + " We don't try to authenticate, it probably means the user is in non logged mode.");
477 }
478
479 return null;
480 }
481
482 // Check for empty usernames
483 if (login.equals("")) {
484 context.put("message", "nousername");
485
486 if (LOG.isDebugEnabled()) {
487 LOG.debug("LDAP authentication failed: login empty");
488 }
489
490 return null;
491 }
492
493 // If we have the context then we are using direct mode
494 // then we should specify the database
495 // This is needed for virtual mode to work
496 Principal principal = null;
497
498 // Try authentication against ldap
499 principal = ldapAuthenticate(login, "", context);
500
501 if (LOG.isDebugEnabled()) {
502 if (principal != null) {
503 LOG.debug("LDAP authentication succeed with principal [" + principal.getName() + "]");
504 } else {
505 LOG.debug("LDAP authentication failed for user [" + login + "]");
506 }
507 }
508
509 return principal;
510 }
511 }
512 {{/code}}

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